03-08-2009 - International disease monitoring, April to June 2009
International disease monitoring, April to June 2009M. Sabirovic1, H. Roberts1, S. Hall1, M. Lopez1 and N. Coulson1
1 Food and Farming Group, Global Animal Health, Defra, 17 Smith Square, London SW1P 3JR
- African swine fever in the Caucasus region
- BTV-1 and BTV-8 outbreaks in France
- Sporadic cases of classical swine fever in wild boar continue to be reported from Germany and Hungary
- Mixed serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease involved in outbreaks in the Middle East and south-east Asia
- Outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza in wild birds in China, Mongolia and Russia
These are among matters discussed in the international disease monitoring report for April to June 2009, prepared by Defra's Food and Farming Group, Global Animal Health
|AFRICAN HORSE SICKNESS |
There were no reports of African horse sickness (AHS) during
the quarter. A Food and Veterinary Office mission to Mauritius
resulted in strengthening conditions on animal health requirements
and veterinary certification for imports of registered Equidae.
From now on, horses imported to the EU from South Africa via
Mauritius for temporary and permanent export will have to meet
quarantine, residency requirements and testing requirements
|AFRICAN SWINE FEVER |
Sporadic outbreaks continue to be reported from southern parts
of Russia in the Caucasus region. Russia is implementing control
measures aimed at wild boar in the area around the outbreaks.
Italy reported an outbreak in Sardinia in domestic pigs for the first time in five months. African swine fever (ASF) is considered endemic in wild boar in Sardinia and subject to control measures.
Russia reported a slight easterly spread of ASF infection in wild boar in Chechnya. Two outbreaks were also reported in domestic pigs in Stavropol. Systematic and sustained disease control efforts are taking place in the wider region. There is a ban on the import and export of agricultural products.
Italy reported an outbreak of ASF in domestic pigs in Nuoro, Sardinia. This is the first outbreak in domestic pigs since January 2009. Two of 30 dead pigs were infected and the rest of the herd was culled.
Namibia reported outbreaks in backyard pigs in Omusati and Oshana that were attributed to contact with wild infected animals. In this area, ASF is known to circulate in wild warthogs.
In the EU, cases of bluetongue virus serotype 1 (BTV-1), attributed
to last year's virus circulation, were reported from France,
from outside the known affected regions. This might indicate
wider spread of BTV-1 last season than previously reported,
as diagnosis was frequently made on clinical grounds alone and
BTV-1 may have been mistakenly diagnosed as BTV-8 infections.
BTV-1 and BTV-8 cases due to virus circulation in 2009 have
been reported only from France. Other reported cases of BTV-8
in the EU are probably due to last year's infection season.
Vaccination against BTV-1 is continuing in France; however, uptake and coverage appear to be limited. Vaccination uptake for BTV-8 is between 50 and 80 per cent in cattle along the Channel coast while less than 50 per cent of small ruminants from the same region are vaccinated against BTV-8. Countrywide vaccination levels (based on vaccine orders) are approximately 90 per cent for BTV-8 in cattle and approximately 50 per cent for BTV-8 in small ruminants. Levels of countrywide vaccination against BTV-1 are marginally higher. While it appears that very little dual vaccination against BTV-1 and BTV-8 was done during 2008, vaccination for both serotypes in 2009 will be compulsory. Vaccination against BTV-8 continues in many other affected EU member states.
|This article summarises official information on outbreaks of specified animal diseases and other diseases that may be of interest. Defra's Food and Farming Group, Global Animal Health (FFG-GAH) monitors outbreaks of animal disease in countries that trade with the UK and EU member states. It also notes new epidemiological developments, which may give an early warning of emerging threats to the UK. Where a new disease outbreak could pose a threat, the FFG-GAH carries out a qualitative analysis of the risks to UK livestock. These analyses are publicly available on Defra's website (www.defra.gov.uk/animalh/diseases/monitoring/index.htm). The EU and the UK take appropriate safeguard measures to mitigate the potential risks of disease being introduced through legal trade. Defra notes that it is also important to recognise the continuing threat to the UK through illegal imports from countries with endemic disease and other routes; for example, highly pathogenic avian influenza or Newcastle disease from migrating birds. The map in this report was prepared from official reports received during the period; they do not necessarily reflect the true situation in every country and should not be regarded as definitive. The map was produced using ESRI Data and Maps CD (2002). Unless otherwise stated, disease control measures have been put in place by the affected country or region. |
France has set up a third BTV-1 restriction zone around a BTV-1-positive alpaca in Haute Saône, but has reported no signs of further spread of BTV-1. Four BTV-1 cases were also reported recently from areas where disease was thought to be absent. Test results indicate that these are old infections (taken from abortion testing cases), suggesting that BTV-1 may be more widely spread than previously considered.
Portugal reported no new outbreaks of BTV-1.
Spain reported a further 11 outbreaks of BTV-1 in known affected regions.
France reported 20 cases of BTV-8 due to virus circulation, across central and northern France.
Austria now considers BTV-8 to be endemic.
Italy reported 40 outbreaks of BTV-8 in Sardinia in cattle, sheep and goats. In Italy, a restriction zone and vaccination plan will be put in place in Piemonte, where BTV-8 outbreaks occurred last year, because of the concerns that the virus may be circulating.
Spain reported an outbreak of BTV-8 in cattle in Campo de Gibraltar.
Portugal is implementing a 'low-risk' area for BTV-8 across the whole country, where voluntary surveillance will be carried out.
Denmark reported that country-wide compulsory vaccination has now started.
Germany reported 100 per cent vaccination of cattle and 80 per cent vaccination of sheep against BTV-8.
Vaccination is compulsory in the southern region of Sweden, and, so far, coverage has reached 80 per cent of all susceptible animals.
Norway will not use vaccination against BTV-8, but will control the disease using surveillance and stamping out.
Switzerland reported nine outbreaks of BTV-8 in known affected regions.
Israel reported an outbreak of BTV-8 in cattle in HaZafon. BTV-16 was detected at the same premises in November 2008, suggesting a mixed infection in the vector population. It is unknown whether animals were infected with both serotypes.
Oman reported BTV-8 infection in Al Batinah, although the report was unclear about the numbers and species of animals infected.
BTV-1, BTV-4 and BTV-16
Oman has reported the detection of BTV serotypes 1, 4 and 16 in Al Batinah in farmed ruminants. BTV-4 was isolated from gazelles, while BTV-16 was isolated from sheep. Vaccination will be applied.
Israel reported an outbreak of BTV-24 in sheep in HaDarom, following initial reports in November 2008 in the same area. Mortality was high (240 of 300 sheep). There is no vaccine available for BTV-24.
|CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER |
Several EU member states (Bulgaria, France, Germany, Luxembourg,
Italy, Romania, Slovenia and Slovakia) reported success with
their EU co-financed control programmes for classical swine
fever (CSF). However, they have all indicated that while success
is possible, eradication may be difficult and could take several
years of concerted effort and considerable cooperation between
industry and hunting communities. Hungary is now considering
the need for vaccination in combination with hunting. Slovakia
reported that, despite vaccination, only very low levels of
seroconversion have been detected; therefore, vaccination will
be implemented again over a wider area. France reported that
its DIVA PCR for identifying vaccinated and non-vaccinated animals
had incorrectly identified wild virus in animals that had been vaccinated.
Therefore, it maintains that the last wild virus-infected case
in wild boar was detected in May 2007.
Germany reported more cases of CSF in wild boar and has expanded surveillance zones and eradication/emergency vaccination plans for feral pigs. Generally, control programmes in Germany consist of vaccination in feral pigs using bait, but there is also a programme to close pig farms (with compensation) in the areas surrounding cases. Culling of wild boar alone to reduce the infected population in affected regions is not encouraged in Germany.
Germany reported more than 50 cases of CSF in wild boar in Pfalz and North Rhine-Westphalia this year. All cases were detected in surveillance zones, including one case in a new and previously unaffected region (Köln). Positive cases on the west side of the Rhine were also reported from the area close to the French border (Pfalz). Germany is aiming to reduce the number of pig holdings in the Rhineland-Palatinate to mitigate the risk of introducing CSF to domestic pigs. Vaccination against CSF in wild boar in known affected regions is ongoing.
Hungary continued to report cases of CSF in wild boar in Pest and Novograd. Controls in place against wild boar have resulted in the number of infected animals slowly decreasing. A trilateral agreement between the EU, Hungary and Slovakia is now in place and aims to reduce the number of susceptible animals.
Slovakia plans to increase the vaccination area for wild boar in known affected areas along the Hungarian border.
Croatia reported that the CSF-positive wild boar recently detected at a hunting ground was the first evidence of CSF infection in wild boar since 2005. Further sampling at this location and other hunting grounds detected no infection.
Romania plans to stop vaccinating backyard pigs in October 2009. Commercial herds are no longer vaccinated. Romania has not detected CSF in domestic pigs since October 2007, or in wild boar since January 2009. However, concerns that vaccination may mask disease still remain.
Brazil reported five further outbreaks of CSF in domestic pigs in Rio Grande do Norte and Amapá. These two regions are outside the area considered free of CSF. In all cases, premises were traditional farms and CSF was detected during surveillance following the initial outbreak. All pigs in Rio Grande do Norte are to be vaccinated.
|EQUINE INFECTIOUS ANAEMIA |
France considers that the new index case of equine infectious
anaemia (EIA) in the Var region may be a re-emergence of disease
reported in 2000 on the same premises. This may suggest that
some infection has persisted at a low level in the area. As
part of the Tripartite Agreement, Defra's Food and Farming Group,
Global Animal Health is receiving regular updates from France on
the situation and epidemiology of the outbreak.
Four horses in the Var region of France have been identified as infected with EIA. One horse showed clinical signs and the other three horses were detected as part of follow-up epidemiological investigations in which 500 horses were tested. All positive animals were destroyed and restrictions placed on in-contact equids from over 50 premises in the region.
Croatia reported four outbreaks of EIA in areas of Lika-Senj and Istra during regular annual EIA surveillance. Infected horses were destroyed.
Italy reported 20 outbreaks of EIA in various regions, bringing the number for this year to 61.
Romania reported six outbreaks of EIA, bringing the total to 99 in various regions this year.
|FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE |
A complex picture of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) serotypes
seems to be developing in the Middle East in particular. Widespread
circulation of the new strain, FMD A Iran-05BAR-08
, as well
as two strains of FMD O ME-SA (PanAsia 2 and Ind 2001) and FMD
Asia 1 have been reported this quarter. A new A Iran-05BAR-08
strain seems to be spreading west-wards from Pakistan, Iran
and Iraq to Bahrain, Kuwait, Lebanon and Libya. Some concerns remain
that the existing vaccines that are currently applied in these
regions may not provide adequate protection against the new
strain. The FMD World Reference Laboratory (FMD WRL), Pirbright,
considered that the existing high-quality, high-potency A22
Iraq vaccine in EU vaccine banks should provide significant
protection against the new strain. A new vaccine may be available from
late summer 2009 (FMD WRL 2009a
The outbreak of FMD Asia 1 in Bahrain may represent a new incursion without a clear origin. This serotype is most often reported from the Indian subcontinent. Occasional previous outbreaks of this serotype have been reported from the Middle East, eastern Europe and China, but not in the Middle East for five years. As there is usually little antigenic variation between Asia 1 strains, current vaccines should provide good protection (Valarcher and others 2009).
The FMD situation in the Caucasus remains uncertain, although no outbreaks have been reported from the region since the spring of 2007. Outbreaks of ASF have hampered FMD vaccination programmes for the past two years and there remains a lack of veterinary resources at district level.
Bahrain reported an outbreak of FMD A Iran-05BAR-08 in quarantine cattle (from Somalia) and FMD Asia 1 in recently introduced cattle in Manama. Vaccination using a triple vaccine against serotypes O1, A22 and Asia 1 will be carried out.
Kuwait has reported an outbreak of FMD A Iran-05BAR-08 in cattle in Al Jahrah. Iraq submitted over 230 samples to the FMD WRL, which are now confirmed as a mixture of FMD A Iran-05BAR-08 and FMD O ME-SA PanAsia2.
Lebanon reported 11 outbreaks of FMD A Iran-05BAR-08 in cattle in Ash Shamal and Al Biqa. More recently, FMD O has been reported from Lebanon (FMD WRL 2009b).
Israel continues to report FMD O from Haifa and HaZafon. The United Arab Emirates has reported two outbreaks of FMD O in Dubai. The animals were wild species - gazelles and blackbuck - in an area specifically for wild animals. The affected populations were destroyed and sheep and goats in the area have been vaccinated. The isolates showed high sequence homology with the FMD O ME-SA Ind 2001 strain. This is a different strain from that circulating in other areas of the Middle East, which is the FMD O ME-SA PanAsia 2 strain.
China reported outbreaks in cattle of FMD Asia 1 in Xinjiang, Hunan, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Guangxi and Guizhou, and of FMD A in Guizhou and Shandong. Vaccination is in place in Shaanxi, but not in the other regions, where animals were destroyed. FMD O was reported in pigs in P'ing-Tung and T'ao-Yuan, Taiwan. The animals concerned are sentinel (unvaccinated) animals used to ensure eradication of virus following an outbreak on an index farm. No virus was detected, but pigs were non-structural protein antibody positive.
Libya has reported that three outbreaks in cattle in three regions, first detected in January 2009, were due to FMD A Iran-05BAR-08.
Namibia reported 10 further outbreaks of FMD SAT 2 in cattle in Kavango. The animals are in an FMD buffer zone and are reportedly routinely vaccinated against FMD, but they come into contact with wild buffaloes.
Angola has reported an outbreak of FMD SAT 2 strain in cattle in Cuando Cubango. The animals may have been infected by contact with wild animals, but there were also reports of illegal movements of animals in the region. Vaccination will be applied.
|HIGHLY PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA H5N1 |
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 was reported from
domestic poultry only from Asia this quarter. China (including
Hong Kong), Mongolia and Russia all reported die-offs of wild
birds infected with HPAI H5N1 in areas where similar die-offs
were recorded in 2005/06 (Fig 1
). Until recently, the number
of infected wild birds reported from these countries had been
declining since 2005/06. It remains uncertain whether this may
be due to underreporting during previous years and increased
surveillance this year, or increasing infection levels. Nevertheless,
the EU has advised member states to be aware of the risk of
migratory wild birds from this area and to ensure that contingency
and surveillance plans are up to date.
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|FIG 1 : Highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreaks in wild birds in 2009 and in wild birds and domestic poultry in 2005/06 |
Bangladesh reported an outbreak in Chittagong and one in Dhaka, both on commercial farms. Vaccination is prohibited.
China reported a second outbreak of H5N1 HPAI, this time in Tibet, in chickens at a live bird market. Vaccination has been implemented. To date, over 350,000 birds have been vaccinated in Xinjiang and nearly 1500 in Tibet.
Vietnam reported a further seven outbreaks of HPAI H5N1 in various regions. While vaccination is being carried out, Vietnam stated that recent outbreaks are related to insufficient vaccination of poultry and that low public awareness has led to low compliance with vaccination and consumption of infected meat. The government is looking at a long-term commitment to re-structuring the poultry industry in Vietnam and controlling the disease in the future.
India reported a further outbreak of HPAI H5N1 in West Bengal in backyard poultry. Vaccination is not being applied.
Hong Kong has reported two more incidents of H5N1 HPAI in wild birds; one in a crested myna (Acridotheres cristatellus), a species common to Hong Kong, and the other in two chickens found washed up on the coast. The carcases were decomposed. Surveillance on poultry farms, markets, pet shops and for wild birds has been increased. Keeping backyard poultry in Hong Kong is forbidden.
China has reported an outbreak of H5N1 HPAI in Qinghai. A total of 121 dead wild birds tested positive for infection. As a precaution, 24,000 domestic poultry nearby were also destroyed. Lake Qinghai is an area where many migratory wild birds are found. In 2005/06, it was the scene of a very large die-off of over 6000 infected migratory wild birds, signalling the start of outbreaks across Eurasia, including western Europe, in domestic poultry and wild birds.
Mongolia reported an outbreak of HPAI H5 (N unknown) in wild birds (migratory swans, apparently whooper swans) in Arkhangai.
Russia also reported a die-off of wild birds in Respublika Tyva along Lake Uvs Noor, again an area of high numbers of migratory wild birds and where previous outbreaks were recorded in 2005/06.
|LOW PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA |
Germany reported to the Standing Committee on the Food Chain
and Animal Health on May 5, 2009, that the H7N7 low pathogenic
avian influenza (LPAI) outbreaks in turkeys in Kleve are now
resolved. Contact holdings, including those that provided the
turkey poults, and all holdings in the surveillance zone were
negative by virology and serology. Measures were lifted on April
The EU has reminded member states that compulsory slaughter of ducks is not always necessary, as current scientific evidence states that there is a low probability of mutation of HPAI occurring in Anatidae.
Spain reported LPAI H5 (N remains unidentified) infection in Navarra, in ducklings bought from a French supplier. France is now investigating this report.
Germany reported an outbreak of H7N7 LPAI in North Rhine-Westphalia on a turkey fattening farm. The turkeys originated from a hatchery in Baden Württemberg. A 1 km restriction zone was placed around the premises and all domestic poultry within the zone have been culled. Pigs that were also present tested negative.
Italy reported four outbreaks of LPAI H5N7 in turkeys in Veneto and Lombardy, and two outbreaks of H7 (N unknown) at a poultry farm in Piemonte and a slaughter-house in Umbria. Surveillance zones of 1 km and culling were implemented.
The USA reported an outbreak of H7N9 LPAI in a commercial broiler breeder premises in Kentucky. The birds were tested as part of a National Poultry Improvement Plan for poultry breeding premises. All birds were culled. Other premises in the surveillance zone and an enhanced 10 km surveillance zone showed no evidence of disease spread.
|LUMPY SKIN DISEASE |
Namibia has reported an outbreak of lumpy skin disease in cattle
in three endemic regions, on the basis of clinical signs. This
increase in incidence reflects the recent flooding, which gave
rise to increased vector (mosquitoes and flies) activity.
|NEW VARIANT INFLUENZA A H1N1 |
Canada and Argentina have reported one outbreak each of new
variant influenza A H1N1 in pig herds. In both cases, between
25 and 30 per cent of the pigs experienced mild to moderate
signs consistent with swine influenza and all of them recovered
after a few days. So far, there is no evidence that pigs may
play a role in the epidemiology of the current human pandemic
of H1N1 infection. For further information, see Defra's outbreak
assessments at www.defra.gov.uk/animalh/diseases/monitoring/poa.htm
|NEWCASTLE DISEASE |
Outbreaks have been reported in domestic and backyard poultry
in Bulgaria, Turkey, Israel, Azerbaijan and Peru.
|PESTE DES PETITS RUMINANTS |
Turkey reported an outbreak of peste des petits ruminants (PPR)
in sheep in Istanbul in the Thrace (European) side. This is
the first time Turkey has reported disease outbreaks to the
EU Advanced Disease Notification System. PPR outbreaks can be
indicative of high volumes of small ruminant movement and trade.
Tanzania reported two more outbreaks of PPR in Arusha in sheep and goats. Vaccination is in place and, to date, 1·5 million sheep and goats have been vaccinated, with a further 2·5 million vaccinations planned. The Republic of Congo reported that, since 2006, a concerted vaccination campaign has been carried out and there have been no further outbreaks of PPR. Vaccination will continue alongside strengthened border controls to improve efforts to eradicate the disease.
|RIFT VALLEY FEVER |
South Africa has reported seven outbreaks of Rift Valley fever
in cattle in KwaZulu-Natal. Vaccination (which is already practised
throughout South Africa) will be stepped up to cover high-risk
areas, where vector populations (mainly Aedes
species of mosquito)
have risen following high rainfall. This time of year is always
a high-risk time, as rainfall leads to the emergence of large
numbers of vectors.
|SHEEPPOX AND GOATPOX |
Mongolia reported an outbreak of sheeppox and goatpox in goats
Azerbaijan reported an outbreak in sheep in Agsu. Vaccination is being carried out in both countries.
|SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE |
During the past 12 months, only Italy has reported any outbreaks
of swine vesicular disease (SVD). In total, there have been
more than 60 outbreaks, involving more than 16,500 pigs from
fattening and breeding herds, although fattening herds have
a threefold higher incidence.
Italy has reported one outbreak of SVD in Avellino and two in Calabria. These outbreaks are in areas not accredited with SVD-free status. An outbreak in Sicily (Catania) meant the disease-free status of the region was suspended. Meanwhile, Italy has requested the EU to reinstate disease-free status to Perugia and Abruzzo. This will be decided next month.
|VESICULAR STOMATITIS |
The USA reported two outbreaks of vesicular stomatitis (VS)
in horses in Texas and one in New Mexico. In the first Texas
outbreak, one of four horses developed clinical signs and test
results confirmed VS. A further outbreak in a recreational horse
was detected on another premises in the same county, one week
later. In New Mexico, another infected recreational horse was
reported from a premises under restriction since June 18, when
disease was first suspected. In all cases, the New Jersey strain
has been identified. This strain has been isolated from all
previous outbreaks in the USA over five years.
|Previous report |
SABIROVIC, M., ROBERTS, H., HALL, S., ELLIOTT, H. & COULSON, N. (2009) International disease monitoring, January to March 2009. Veterinary Record 164,739 -742[Free Full Text]
FMD WRL (2009a) OIE/FAO World Reference Laboratory Report January-March 2009. www.wrlfmd.org/ref_labs/ref_lab_reports/OIE-FAO FMD Ref Lab Report Jan-Mar 2009.pdf. Accessed April 15, 2009
FMD WRL (2009b) Molecular Epidemiology Reports: Lebanon. www.wrlfmd.org/fmd_genotyping/me/leb.htm. Accessed April 29, 2009
VALARCHER, J-F., KNOWLES, N. J., ZAKHAROV, V., SCHERBAKOV, A., ZHANG, Z., SHANG, Y-J. & OTHERS (2009) Multiple origins of foot and mouth disease virus serotype Asia 1 outbreaks, 2003-2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases 15,1046 -1051[Medline]
|Routine information sources |
EUROPEAN COMMISSION - Animal Disease Notification System. Weekly Reports. http://ec.europa.eu/food/animal/diseases/adns/index_en.htm
EUROPEAN COMMISSION - CVO emergency notifications/SANCO documents
EUROPEAN COMMISSION EUR-LEX - http://eur-lex.europa.eu/en/index.htm
FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION - www.fao.org
FOOD AND VETERINARY OFFICE - http://ec.europa.eu/food/fvo/index_en.cfm
OIE - Disease information. www.oie.int/eng/info/hebdo/a_info.htm
WHO - www.who.int/en